SLEEP DISORDERS AND SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN ADOLESCENCE: VULNERABILITY TRAIT OR MARKER OF A RISK STATE?

Oral Session 3
Sunday, April 29, 2018 | 10:40am-12:10pm | Room 342B

11:55am-12:10pm
SLEEP DISORDERS AND SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN ADOLESCENCE: VULNERABILITY TRAIT OR MARKER OF A RISK STATE?

Authors:
Julie Rolling (France)*
Carmen Schröder (France)

Introduction

Sleep disorders, particularly abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation, are one of the risk factors for suicide. Moreover, we know that during adolescence, the developmental process frequently leads to a delayed sleep phase with a possible desynchronization of biological rhythms. We were interested in the sleep of suicidal teenagers, in order to study the basic chronotype.

Materials and methods

We recruited 58 suicidal adolescents and 225 controls, and then collected various components of the sleep and wake rhythm, dissociating sleep during school time and out of school time (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire = MCQT). We also collected evidence regarding energy, focus, quality of life and social support from validated scales (Life and Perceived Health-Ado = VSP-A, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support = MSPSS and Kidscreen- 27).

Results

The suicides were on average 14.3 years old (1.5) (versus 14.2 (1.1), p = 0.8). We obtained significant results concerning total sleep time during the school time period (6h30 (2:12) versus 7:20 (1:09), p = 0,01), which reflects a greater sleep debt for suicidal teenagers. They also have a longer sleep latency (out of school period) (1:24 (1:20) versus 54 (1:12), p = 0.04), which contributes to increase their sleep debt. The results for the social Jet Lag were not significant, probably due to too much deterioration of sleep quality in suicidal patients.

Conclusions

These results illustrate that 4 weeks before the suicidal act, there are major changes in sleep that signify a degraded psychic state. For these adolescents, the hereditary and developmental components have an impact on the physiology of sleep, especially in terms of disinhibition, and those especially since this public frequently have a high impulsivity. These results encourage further research on these sleep disorders: are they primary, representing a prodrome vulnerability trait of a psychic disorder, or are they secondary, and therefore a marker of a more recent risk state?